Category Archives for Baptist Identity

Ken Hemphill: Twelve Indisputable Strengths

May 14, 2018

By: Dr. Michael Cox, Pastor
First Baptist Church Pryor, OK

Ken Hemphill is a nominee for the presidency of the Southern Baptist Convention in 2018, the fact of which most who will read this are already aware. This highest of offices in the SBC will be decided on Tuesday June 12, 2018, in Dallas by a vote scheduled for about 1:50 P.M. Here are twelve indisputable strengths many have observed in Ken’s life and ministry which advise that he would be an outstanding President.

He Is a Man of Integrity

Honesty, transparency, truthfulness, and faithfulness seem to be in short supply in America, even in the church of the Lord Jesus, and, sadly, even within our own Southern Baptist denomination. Paul admonished Timothy to entrust his apostolic teachings “to faithful men, who will be able to teach others also” (2 Tim. 2:1 NASB). Ken is a man who is above reproach, prudent, respectable, hospitable, able to teach… (cf. 1 Tim. 3:2). He is a man of his word; and his word is plain and dependable. His “yes” means “yes” and his “no” means “no” (cf. James 5:12). Yet, nobody is claiming that Ken Hemphill is sinless, or even faultless. But what we are saying is that the trajectory of his life has been characterized by honesty, transparency, truthfulness, and faithfulness. He is a man of integrity.

He Is a Man of Authentic Christian Character

Few would argue that authentic Christian character is more aptly sketched than in Paul’s words found in Gal. 5:22-23. Yielding ourselves moment by moment to the work of the indwelling Holy Spirit is the only way any of us can consistently walk in the Spirit; and walking in the Spirit is the only way we can routinely, as a habit of life, manifest the fruit of the Spirit, which fruit is exemplified as love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, and self-control. This fruit is evident in Ken’s life and has been for many years. He is a man who strives to walk in the power of the Spirit, undergirding all that he says and does with prayer, especially prayer for wisdom and knowledge (cf. 2 Chron. 1:10). Ken is a man who reveres the holiness of God and deeply yearns for it to be actual in him. He is a man of authentic Christian character.

He Has Impeccable Academic Credentials

Ken is a North Carolina preacher’s son who went to Wake Forest University to get an education to prepare for Christian ministry and to play linebacker. He graduated from Wake Forest with a Bachelor of Arts degree in Religion. He went on to earn both his Master of Divinity and Doctor of Ministry degrees from Southern Baptist Theological Seminary. Further, he earned his Doctor of Philosophy degree in New Testament from Cambridge University, where he studied under C.F.D. Moule. He has impeccable academic credentials.

He Is a Seasoned Theologian Who Is Both Biblical and Southern Baptist to the Core

Ken believes that the Bible, comprised of sixty-six canonical books, is the inspired, infallible, inerrant Word of God. He believes it from “Genesis to maps”! His theology has had time to solidify and it is doctrinally sound in every respect, not half-baked, ill-conceived, or carelessly expressed. He knows what he believes and why he believes it, and he enthusiastically embraces The 2000 Baptist Faith and Message without dancing around any wording. He is a mature theologian who is both biblical and Southern Baptist to the core.

He Is an Insightful Church Growth Strategist and Author

Ken has spent many years studying and writing about spiritual and numerical advancement. He has written approximately forty-five books, many of which explore the nuances of church and kingdom growth which have been read by thousands, and he continues to write and publish today through Auxano Press One of his newest (2018) books is entitled Unlimited: God’s Love, Atonement, and Mission, which is already proving to be a blessing to many. He is an insightful church growth strategist and author.

He Is an Experienced and Much Beloved Pastor and Educator

Ken served as Pastor of Wolf Creek Baptist Church in Wolf Creek/Battletown, Kentucky, and as a Youth and Education Minister at Meadow Hill Baptist Church in Louisville, Kentucky, while in seminary. He later began his teaching career at Wingate College in Wingate, North Carolina. He then became the Pastor of the First Baptist Church of Galax, Virginia, and then on to the pastorate at the First Baptist Church of Norfolk, Virginia, where the church experienced phenomenal growth during his tenure. He has served as a guest lecturer in the United States and Scotland, including the School of Evangelism in Scotland; Southern Baptist Theological Seminary; Beeson Divinity School of Samford University; Oklahoma Baptist University; New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary; and, of course, Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, where he served as President from 1994-2003; and presently at North Greenville University, a comprehensive university in Tigerville, South Carolina, which is affiliated with the South Carolina Baptist Convention and the Southern Baptist Convention. He is an experienced and much beloved pastor and educator.

He Understands That the Need of the Southern Baptist Convention Is Deeper Than Structural Changes

Ken believes that the key issue within the Southern Baptist Convention is “the restoration of passion for the King and His kingdom in the hearts of individuals and churches that would, in turn, lead to increased evangelistic activity and a deeper level of personal stewardship.” Ken cautions that “the legitimate concern being expressed about declining baptisms will not be resolved by structural changes, but by personal spiritual awakening that results in a mission passion like that of Isaiah, who cried out, ‘Here am I. Send me!’” (Isa. 6:8). He also warns that, “We cannot be satisfied to redistribute old resources. What we desperately need is ‘new and abundant resources.’ We need a stewardship revival!” He substantiates this claim of the need for a stewardship revival by asserting, “In the average American church, 25 percent of the people give 85 percent of the resources. Even more troubling is the finding that those who give regularly give only 2.5 percent of their income.” He further laments the fact that Cooperative Program missions giving by churches “has dropped steadily until it now averages only 6.2 percent,” and that was in 2010. Sadly, the trend has continued and is likely below 6 percent today. Hemphill lamented in this 2010 Viewpoint, “This reduction in percentage giving by the local church has, in turn, caused state conventions to cut back services or to retain a larger percentage of the CP monies that are given by the churches in their states…The issue is not to redistribute the small amount of water that makes its way to the SBC entities; the answer is to increase the volume at every level.” He understands that the need of the Southern Baptist Convention is deeper than structural changes.

He Values the Work of State Conventions

In another 2010 Viewpoint article, Ken shared his concerns that one of the Great Commission Resurgence Task Force reports “seemed to suggest that accountability was lacking for monies received from NAMB for agreed-upon ministry initiatives.” He also expressed concern “that the lack of NAMB financial agreements would greatly penalize those states that face the greatest need and greatest opportunity when it comes to planting churches.” He wrote of his alarm, stating, “The potential impact upon state convention work was recently in the news when a potential presidential candidate indicated the state convention should keep no more than 25 percent of CP monies collected for state-wide ministries,” calling this an “arbitrary” and “unrealistic number.” Thankfully, such has not happened yet, and Ken can be counted on to stand against such nonsense. He values the work of state conventions.

He Esteems the Work of Baptist Associations

Ken has long been both a supporter and a participant in the work of the Baptist associations. He knows that, other than the local church, there is no greater asset to on-site cooperative ministry than the Baptist associations. They need to remain intact and experience revitalization from both directions: from the local churches and their ministerial staff as well as from the state and national conventions. He esteems the work of Baptist associations.

He Believes in the Inestimable Worth of the Cooperative Program

Ken has worked and written diligently for decades to promote and protect giving through the Cooperative Program. He has opposed, and will continue to oppose, any giving strategy that “has the potential to degenerate into a ‘make-your-own-budget’ mentality.” In another 2010 Viewpoint regarding the “make-your-own-budget” mentality, he wrote, “The end result of such a strategy would be to erode the essential partnership between state and national convention and create the possibility that a state would actually find it necessary to keep a larger percentage of Cooperative Program monies in-state to make up for those monies designated through a ‘Great Commission Giving’ category that bypasses the state convention.” He has grave concerns about any giving strategy which might “become a ready means for designating the churches’ mission giving,” fearing that any such plan “will spell the end of the Cooperative Program as we know it and will make it virtually impossible to design and fund a national mission strategy.” He has never wavered from this posture, and never will. He has even been so bold as to suggest that a good starting point to be considered by each church for its Cooperative Program giving is 10 percent and has called for “a more sacrificial level of giving at every level,” meaning the individual and the local church. He believes in the inestimable worth of the Cooperative Program.

He Is an Experienced Denominational Ambassador with a Plan for the Future

We all know that Ken has been in denominational ministry for many years, leading by example and not heavy-handedly. He served as Director of the Southern Baptist Center for Church Growth in Atlanta, Georgia, a joint venture of the Home Mission Board (now North American Mission Board) and the Sunday School Board (now LifeWay) of the Southern Baptist Convention. From there, he became President of Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary. Then, as the Empowering Kingdom Growth National Strategist for the Executive Committee, he traveled extensively promoting the kingdom of Christ. No opportunity was too small or too large. From coast to coast and from border to border he preached, taught, and witnessed for the cause of Christ, maintaining his morality, integrity, and stellar Christian character all the while as an ambassador for the Lord Jesus first and for Southern Baptists second. He is a statesman par excellence, and he has a “vision” for the future revitalization of the Southern Baptist Convention, the details of which can be found at his website, He is an experienced denominational ambassador with a plan for the future.

He Is Available to Implement His Vision of Revitalization

This is the twelfth and final strength I am listing, although I could register many more. Twelve seems “biblical” enough for everyone to get the picture. Not to diminish the absolute importance of the previous eleven, but, lacking this one, our Convention’s need of revitalization may not get the necessary traction without a gifted encourager ready, willing, and able to engage in the demanding itinerant ministry requisite to invigorating and unifying it. This is a volunteer position. Just to spell it out – there is no pay! But to Ken, the office of President of the Southern Baptist Convention is far more than an honorary, “face of the Convention” position. It is a calling; a summons to build on the prayer emphasis of President Steve Gaines and a directive to commit the next two years to being available to instruct, teach, preach, advise, and encourage across our denomination, with a view toward individual, church, association, state convention, and Southern Baptist Convention spiritual revitalization which results in renewed commitment to biblical doctrine, biblical morality, biblical evangelism, biblical stewardship, biblical worship, biblical discipleship, and much more. Wonderful, hard-working men of God have served as President, but their full-time ministry necessarily limits their availability in many cases. While Ken is a popular preacher and professor, currently serving as Interim Pastor at Second Baptist Church in Springfield, Missouri, and was the founding Director of the Center for Church Planting and Revitalization at North Greenville University, he now serves as Special Assistant to the President for Denominational Relations at North Greenville. Therefore, he is not tied to any single pulpit, has a flexible university schedule, and is race-horse ready to go to work. He is available to implement his vision of revitalization.


Southern Baptists need as President a man who has the heart of a pastor, the mind of an erudite theologian and exegete, the humility of Moses, the moral fiber of Joseph, and the experience of years. Assessing these twelve strengths listed above should lead one to conclude that Ken Hemphill is uniquely seasoned, gifted, qualified, and senses God’s call to be the next President of the Southern Baptist Convention “for such a time as this” (cf. Esther 4:14).

  1. Kenneth S. Hemphill, “GCRTF Viewpoint: Our Need Is Deeper Than Structural Changes,”, accessed 4 May 2018.
  2. Kenneth S. Hemphill, “GCRTF Viewpoint: Valuing the Work of State Conventions,”, accessed 4 May 2018.
  3. Kenneth S. Hemphill, “GCRTF Viewpoint: The Solution Is More Sacrificial Giving,”, accessed 4 May 2018.


Baptist or Badtist?

October 27, 2017

By Walker Moore
Awestar Ministries

With my semi-retirement coming up, I have been reflecting on the journey God has taken me on. In 1973, when I was 22, First Baptist Church of Wyaconda, Missouri, called for my ordination.

In those days, ordination was taken seriously, and a church would only call for your ordination if you had demonstrated real evidence of God’s calling on your life. I don’t mean to downplay modern ordinations, but it seems to me that the church is ordaining people as fast as the copier can print. I am of the old school that says there should be a period of testing and examination of those who feel called.

I also understand the struggle of that calling. It is hard to tell if the feeling you have in your heart is from God or the hot sauce at Senor Fajita’s restaurant. In either case, you need the Lord.

Back in those days, ordinations were far and few in between. I was nervous about the whole process. On the Sunday of my ordination, the church set aside an entire afternoon to examine my doctrine. A chair was placed in the center of the platform, and the auditorium was full of ordained deacons and pastors from all over the county. I took the hot seat, and the examination began.

The first question they asked was about my testimony and how I came to saving faith in Christ. I told the story of how I was lost, without hope and unable to save myself. I told of how I called upon the shed blood of Christ to cleanse me and asked Jesus to become the Lord of my life, promising to follow Him the rest of my days. They asked me to quote Scriptures to back up each of my points.

Another man stood up and asked me to testify about how God called me into the ministry. I told the story of how I was going my own way when God tapped me on the shoulder and whispered in my ear that he wanted me to preach the gospel. (I left out the part about the hot sauce; these were very serious men.)

Still another man asked me to explain what my spiritual gift was and how it had manifested itself in my life. Again, I responded with Scriptures and testimonies of God using me in teaching for the church.

For the next three hours, I sat there, sweating, as they grilled me on every possible doctrine: salvation, justification, sanctification, the Second Coming and the baptism of the Holy Spirit. These men were just warming up. Even though many were laymen, they knew the Scriptures backwards and forwards and could preach the gospel at the drop of a hat.

They were almost through when one of them had another question for me: Would I always preach in a Baptist church?

“No, sir,” I said simply.

There was a collective gasp and a rustling in the pews as they turned and looked at each other. Did they hear correctly? In their mind, I had just gone from being a Baptist to Badtist.

The man who asked the question looked stunned. “Maybe you didn’t understand. Will you always preach in a Baptist church?”

Again, I answered simply, “No, sir.”

“Where do you think you’re going to preach?” he asked.

I explained to him that my calling was not to be a Baptist but a defender of the truth, preaching hope to the lost, those in need of a Savior.  I would preach “in season and out of season” (1 Tim. 4:2). If no one came, then I would do what the Lord said in the book of Luke: “Go out into the highways and hedges, and compel them to come in, that My house may be filled” (Luke 14:23, KJV). I told him if God allowed me, I would keep going until I had preached to the uttermost parts of the earth. “Yes, I am a Baptist, and I will probably be asked mostly by Baptists to come and preach,” I explained. “But if God opens other doors, I will step in and proclaim His Word.”

After I finished, the men dismissed themselves to convene a council to discuss my answers. It seemed to take forever, but after an hour, they came out, laid hands on me and presented me to the church. I was glad it was over. And almost 45 years later, I still feel the same. The author of Acts says it best: I consider my life worth nothing to me; my only aim is to finish the race and complete the task the Lord Jesus has given me—the task of testifying to the good news of God’s grace” (Acts 20:24, NIV).

The List: American Clergymen Who Defended Slavery

September 25, 2017

By Ron F. Hale

The American Civil War has gotten bloodier over the last decade!
J. David Hacker, a demographic historian from Binghamton University in New York,
conducted research on newly digitized census data from the 19 th century recalculating
the death toll of the Civil War. The historic death tally has been approximately 620,000
men for over 100 years. Hacker’s new count reaches 750,000 men, and upwards to the
staggering possibility of 850,000 men. 1

The Trail

Who bears part of the blame for this red river of blood and the lingering costs and
consequences of American slavery?

This article will shed light on those who defended the institution of chattel slavery in

America. Their writings, speeches, and sermons left a traceable trail. If you are a student
of history or theology many of the names on the list will shock you!
How could some of the most sophisticated people in America not see that the sin of
slavery denied the self-evident truth “that all men are created equal, that they are
endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life,
Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness?”

The Historian

Dr. Larry E. Tise is a noted historian, researcher, archivist, author, and professor at East
Carolina University. He has served as State Historic Preservation Officer in both North
Carolina and Pennsylvania. He helped found the National Council on Public History and
the National Conference of State Historic Preservation Officers. This article leans on his
painstaking research and the writing of his book Proslavery: A History of the Defense of
Slavery, 1701-1840, 1987. He holds two degrees from Duke University and a PhD from
the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Based on extensive studies of proslavery books, pamphlets, speeches, biographical

collections 2 , and a quest to discover and explain the racism found in the many defenses
of slavery, Tise judges that most historians have treated proslavery ideology morally
rather than historically 3 . Like finding the tail of a long serpent protruding from a dark
hole, Tise slowly but surely extracts the American ideology of proslavery from its
shadowy history and into the light by studying those who wrote in the defense of
American slavery.

Proslavery defenders

Surprisingly, Tise erases the old myth that proslavery arguments began in the Old South
in the nineteenth century. He shows that beginning in 1701, proslavery ideology was
prevalent during the colonial and revolutionary years – first in New England.

Chapter Six has Tise pinpointing the America defenders of Slavery from 1790-1865. The

length of this article will be extended by his list of 275 proslavery clergymen from the
North and South who wrote, taught, and preached as ideological defenders and
sociopolitical leaders of American slavery. This group represents the elite of both
ministry and American society, some of the most superbly educated, socially aware, and
powerfully stationed in our nation. Almost half of all defenses of slavery published in
America came from these proslavery ministers. 4

Tise discovered that proslavery clergymen came from every state and many European

countries. Men from the North and New England dominated the first generation (born
before 1800) of proslavery clergymen. 5 According to their birth years, he found three
separate cohorts of men: 82 were born before 1800; 87 were born between 1801-1815;
and 93 born between 1816-1839. The first generation reached maturity prior to the rise
of abolitionism; the second group near the peak of the first abolition crisis of the 1830s;
and the latter during the last decade before the Civil War. 6

Of those born overseas: Germany, England, and Ireland loom largest. 7 Massachusetts

produced as many proslavery clergymen writing in the defense of slavery as Georgia. 8
Charleston gave birth to more proslavery preachers than any city in the nation, with
fourteen. 9

Tise indicates that four Protestant denominations gave our nation the most proslavery

ministers. In fact, 77 percent of them grew up as Presbyterians, Episcopalians,
Congregationals, or Baptists. The author states that, “over one-half (60.2 percent) were
from the three major Calvinist churches.” 10 By far, Presbyterians delivered the most
formal defenses of slavery in America, and published the most writings. 11 Presbyterians
represented one-third of all proslavery clergymen. 12

Sixty percent of all proslavery clergy graduating from an American college or university

received their degrees from schools north of the Mason and Dixon’s Line 13 ; Yale
University educated the most proslavery pastors, with South Carolina College second,
and Princeton University coming in third. 14 Of seminary educated clergy, Princeton
Theological Seminary graduated more men who led in these three areas: formal
defenses of slavery, proslavery writings, and proslavery and war sermons. 15 In an age
when few Americans benefited from extended educational opportunities, proslavery
ministers were among the best educated in American society. 16

The Elite

As social influencers, proslavery clergymen sat in the editor’s chair of at least 121
separate periodicals or newspapers. 17 By 1861, many proslavery clergymen had moved

to the highest ecclesiastical positions in America; 16 percent were serving at the highest
office in their church, while another 10 percent were in positions of denominational
leadership. Almost 15 percent had assumed faculty or administrative positions at
colleges and universities. More than one-half worked their way into influential city
pulpits. 18
Before listing the 275 proslavery clergymen, it should be stated that most ministers did
not write in the defense of slavery. It cannot be determined how many held proslavery
convictions and spoke and preached them. Tise is dealing with men who wrote
defending the institution of slavery and its perpetuation on American soil.

An example of ministers who were not “men of their times” or driven by monied

interests were the Sandy Creek Baptists in South Carolina. Their Baptist Association
voted in 1835 to condemn the practice of slavery as inconsistent with the spirit of the
Gospel of Christ and voted to exclude members who would not abandon the practice of
slavery. 19 Many other clergymen never supported slavery and many joined and led the
abolition movement started by the great Christian leader, William Wilberforce in Great

Days before dying, the great Methodist revivalist John Wesley wrote encouraging

William Wilberforce to depend totally on the Lord as he fought to end the slave trade
and the practice of slavery. Wesley called slavery “that execrable villainy, which is the
scandal of religion” and “unless God has raised you up for this very thing, you will be
worn out by the opposition of men and devils.” 20

The List

Dr. Tise lists those ordained clergymen who had published a book, a pamphlet, or a
periodical article defending slavery as an indefinite perpetuation of servitude. Tise has
no pretension that this list represents all such men. 21

Nehemiah Adams
John Bailey Adger
Samuel James Pierce Anderson
James Osgood Andrew
George Dodd Armstrong
Joseph Mayo Atkinson
Thomas Atkinson
Isaac Stockton Keith Axson
John Bachman
Thomas Bacon
Rufus William Bailey
Robert Baird
Samuel John Baird

Joseph S. Baker
Samuel Davies Baldwin
William Barlow
William Hazzard Barnwell
Otto Sievers Barten
Henry Biddleman Bascom
Archibald John Battle
George Addison Baxter
Samuel Benedict
Phillip Berry
Daniel Perrin Bestor, Sr.
George Washington Blagden
Albert Taylor Bledsoe

Seth Bliss
Joseph Luke Blitch
Jonas Bondi
Jonathan Boucher
Nathaniel Bowen
James Pettigru Boyce
Ebenezer Boyden
William Theophilus Brantly
William Tomlinson Brantly
William Henry Brisbane
Iveson Lewis Brookes
David Brown
William Gannaway Brownlow
Samuel J. Bryan
William Calmes Buck
John Lansing Burrows
William C. Butler
Gabriel Capers
William Capers
Theodore Clapp
Simon Clough
John Calkins Coit
Calvin Colton
Amasa Converse
Moncure Daniel Conway
William Carey Crane
Nathaniel Macon Crawford
Moses Ashley Curtis
Lucious Cuthbert, Jr.
Robert Lewis Dabney
John Leadley Dagg
Frederick Dalcho
William Tucker Dickinson Dalzell
William C. Dana
Amos Cooper Dayton
Thomas Lockwood DeVeaux
Andrew Flinn Dickson
David Seth Doggett
Simeon Doggett
Daniel Isaiah Dreher
John Dubose
Thomas Sanford Dunaway
James Alexander Duncan
Samuel Dunwoody
William Woodward Eells
James Habersham Elliott
Stephen Elliott

John England
Charles Andrews Farley
Benedict Joseph Fenwick
Jesse Babcock Ferguson
Isham Randolph Finley
Theophilus Fisk or Fiske
Robert Fleming
Frederick Freeman
George Washington Freeman
Richard Fuller
John Fulton
James Clement Furman
Richard Furman
Christopher Edwards Gadsden
Christopher P. Gadsden
John Lafayette Girardeau
Richard S. Gladney
Alexander Glennie
William Graham
William Henry Green
Alexander Gregg
James K. Gutheim
William T. Hamilton
Charles Hodge
John F. Hoff
Jonathan M. Hoffmeister
Moses Drury Hoge
William James Hodge
Adam Tunno Holmes
John Henry Hopkins
Samuel Blanchard How
George Howe
William Bell White Howe
Robert Boyte Crawford Howell
John Hughes
Bernard Illowy
Ferdinand Jacobs
George Jacobs
Henry Jacobs
Devereux Jarratt
Jeremiah Bell Jeter
Charles Colcock Jones, Sr.
Hugh Jones
John Jones
George Junkin
Henry Keeling
James Ryland Kendrick

Francis Patrick Kenrick
Lender Ker or Kerr
William Knox
Ulrick Vilhelm Koren
John Michael Krebs
Drury Lacy
James Sanford Lamar
Sylvanus Landrum
Peter Laurentius Larsen
Joseph Spry Law
William T. Leacock
P.R. Leatherman
Hanson Lee
Leroy Madison Lee
Isaac Leeser
Edwin Leigh
Max Lilienthal
Andrew Agate Lipscomb
Augutus Baldwin Longstreet
John Chase Lord
Nathan Lord
William Wilberforce Lord
James Adair Lyon
Alexander McCaine
John B. McFerrin
William Henry McIntosh
James Alphonsus McMaster
Samuel Brown McPheeters
Holland Nimmons McTyeire
David Magie
Charles Dutton Mallory
Adolphus Williamson Mangum
Basil Manly, Jr.
Basil Manly, Sr.
Auguste Marie Martin
William Meade
Thomas Francis Meagher
Patrick Hues Mell
Alexander Gardiner Mercer
Thomas Meredith
Maximillian J. Michelbacher
James Warley Miles
Charles Frederic Ernest Minnigerode
John Mitchel
Arthur Mitchell
Elisha Mitchell

James Cake Mitchell (born James
Mitchell Cake)
Thomas Vernor Moore
Philip P. Neely
Alexander Newton
William Norwood
Jacob Aall Ottesen
Benjamin Morgan Palmer
Benjamin Morgan Palmer (nephew of
John Paris
Joel Parker
George Patterson
Thomas Ephraim Peck
Napoleon Joseph Perche
George Foster Pierce
Henry Niles Pierce
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney
William Swan Plumer
Leonidas Polk
Edward Albert Pollard
Abner A. Porter
Rufus Kilpatrick Porter
Jehu G. Postell
Nathaniel Alpheus Pratt
William Otis Prentiss
Herman Amborg Preus
Josiah Priest
Robert Quartermann
James Beverlin Ramsey
Alfred Magill Randolph
Morris Jacob Raphall
Edward Reed
William Rees
John Jefferson DeYampert Renfroe
Nathan Lewis Rice
Richard Henderson Rivers
John Robinson
Stuart Robinson
Frederick Augustus Ross
William Henry Ruffner
John Andrew Scott, Sr.
William Anderson Scott
Samuel Seabury
William H. Seat
James Shannon
Wilhelm Sihler

Alexander Sinclair
Philip Slaughter
Robert Newton Sledd
James A. Sloan
Jacob Henry Smith
Whitefoord Smith
William Andrew Smith
James Smylie
Thomas Smyth
Ichabod Smith Spencer
Urbane C. Spencer
Gardiner Spring
Edward Josiah Stearns
John Steele
Joseph Clay Stiles
Thornton Stringfellow
Moses Stuart
C. F. Sturgis
Thomas Osmond Summers
Henry H. Talbird
Samuel Kennedy Talmage
J. A. W. Thomas
Thomas Thompson
Thomas C. Thornton
James Henley Thornwell
Isacc Taylor Tichenor
Henry Holcombe Tucker
Joel W. Tucker
Henry Allen Tupper
Simon Tuska
Henry Jackson Van Dyke
Charles Stuart Vedder
William H. Vernor
Augustin Verot
Francis Vinton
Carl Ferdinand Wilhelm Walther
Ebenezer Wills Warren
Jared Bell Waterbury
William Hamilton Watkins
Benjamin Joseph Webb
Judah Wechsler
Nathaniel Sheldon Wheaton
William Wheelwright
William Spotswood White
George Whitefield
John Thomas Wightman
William May Wightman

Calvin Henderson Wiley
Albert Williams
J. D. Williams
Richard Hooker Wilmer
John Leighton Wilson
Joseph Ruggles Wilson
Joshua Lacy Wilson
Samuel Ramsey Wilson
William Winans
Edwin Theodore Winkler
Thomas Sumner Winn
Hubbard Winslow
Isaac Mayer Wise

My driving-factor in writing this article can be blamed on my 4th grade teacher. She was a mass-paddler. Our wholesale dose of deliberate pain usually happened as we (the boys) marched single-file to or from the cafeteria. One wrong step or juvenile giggle and her swift justice ran through us like veal through a meat grinder.

Regretfully, since every boy got paddled, no one clearly knew “who” committed the initial transgression.   

Clearly these 275 men participated and prolonged the sin of slavery in America.
2.Larry E. Tise, Proslavery: A History of the Defense of Slavery in America, 1701-1840 (Athens: The University of Georgia Press, 1987), 367.
Appendix Two shows the Proslavery Ideography Codebook regarding the systematic arrangement of all biographical data and manageable variables. These calculations are used as the biographical data in chapter 6 and the rest of the book.
3.Ibid., xiii.
Ibid., xvii.
5. Ibid.,130. Southerners would be the leaders of the proslavery movement by the third generation or after 1830.
6. Ibid., 128.

7. Ibid., 128.
8. Ibid., 129.
9. Ibid., 129.
10. Ibid., 134.
Ibid., Table 6.3, 135.
Ibid., 155. Episcopalian’s wrote 20 percent, Baptists wrote 18 percent, and 14 percent Methodist. The remaining 17 percent were spread widely over almost every other church in America in the nineteenth century.
Ibid., 143.
14. Ibid., Table 6.8, 143. College of Charleston graduated 8, with Union University in New York, Hampden-Sydney College in Virginia, and Harvard University all graduating seven.
Ibid., Table 6.10. 146. Andover Theological Seminary (Congregational) came in second with a total of 46.
Ibid., 137. About 89 percent of these ministers attended class through the high school level, while three of four attended college.
Ibid., 168.
Ibid., 162. While many proslavery clergymen entered church work at the bottom level, Tise found that reviewing the highest ecclesiastical positions achieved by proslavery ministers before 1861, three-fourths (74.6 percent) of the whole had reached or were on the way to them (highest positions)by the Civil War.
Elder Geo. W. Purefoy, A History of the Sandy Creek Baptist Association for its Organization in A.D. 1758, To A.D. 1858, (New York: Sheldon & Co., Publishers, 1859), 163-164.
Eric Metaxas, SEVEN MEN: And the Secret of Their Greatness, (Nashville: Thomas Nelson,2013), 46-47.
Tise, Proslavery, 363-366.

Ron F. Hale
has served as a pastor, denominational leader, and religion writer. He currently serves a SBC congregation in his hometown of Jackson, Tennessee. He may be reached at






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